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Offset printing technology and the development of China's newspaper industry

in 1904, Rubel, the United States, CO sponsored by the Chinese Association of higher education and the China National Corporation of teaching instruments and equipment, invented offset printing technology. Later, German American Kasper Herman brought this technology back to Germany, and in Germany, he manufactured the first 3-cylinder offset press, and designed and produced the first web offset press in 1907. This year marks the 100th anniversary of the invention of offset printing technology. In this 100 years, offset printing technology has played a great role in promoting the progress and development of human society. Similarly, offset printing technology has also contributed to the development of China's newspaper industry

1. Review the introduction of offset printing technology in China's newspaper industry

before 1985, there were nearly a thousand newspapers in China, and all newspapers were published and printed using lead discharge and lead printing technology. Lead typesetting is manual typesetting, and lead printing is mostly printed by web lead printing wheel machine. This traditional printing process is not only inefficient, labor intensive, laborious workers, serious environmental pollution, prone to lead poisoning, but also has a long publishing cycle and poor printing quality, which can not meet people, so that users and relevant industry personnel have many doubts and misunderstandings about the understanding of aluminum alloy cable technology and products, the demand for cultural progress and the objective requirements for the urgent development of the cause after the reform and opening up. The backward technology of newspaper publishing and printing industry restricts the development of China's newspaper industry. At that time, In order to solve this problem, the "7481 project" was launched, and the "national printing technology and equipment coordination group" was established under the leadership of the National Economic Commission, which proposed "Laser Phototypesetting, electronic color separation, offset printing, and binding linkage" The 16 character policy has opened a new chapter in the transformation of China's printing technology. In this case, the newspaper industry actively adds some typical cases, including: entering the ranks of tackling key problems and comprehensive transformation. In 1985, the experiment of computer laser Chinese character input and tabloid layout in Xinhua news agency was successful; In 1987, the successful experiment of computer laser Chinese character typesetting system in the economic society paved the way for the technological transformation of newspaper publishing and printing in the country. In 1985, a few newspapers along the coast took the lead in introducing offset rotary printing machines. From 2008 to 1993, about 1800 newspaper printing plants across the country eliminated the process of lead discharge and lead printing, and completed the comprehensive transformation of the new process production system of newspaper Laser Phototypesetting and offset printing

before 1988, there were about 600 lead rotary presses in China. By the end of 1998, China's newspaper industry had nearly 1100 printing units of offset rotary presses, and the total printing capacity was three times that of 10 years ago. Through more than 10 years of technological transformation, China's newspaper industry has greatly enhanced its development potential, and also promoted the rapid development of China's cause and newspaper industry. According to statistics, in 1988, there were about 922 kinds of newspapers in the country, with a total print volume of about 22.2 billion pairs of openings. By 1998, the types of newspapers in China had reached 2253, an increase of 122.67, and the total print volume reached 54billion pairs of openings, an increase of 143.24%

2. The development of offset printing technology and equipment has made China's newspaper industry realize multi edition colorization

before 1992, most of China's major newspapers published four pages a day. After 1993, with the development of market economy, the increasing demand for information from readers and the continuous increase of advertising volume, newspapers began to expand their editions gradually, and the central level newspapers and major newspapers in provinces and cities were expanded to 12, 16, 24 and even 48 pages a day. Due to the introduction of offset printing technology into newspaper printing production, the prepress technology adopts laser Phototypesetting, picture scanning, color separation and computer typesetting. With the continuous upgrading and improvement of newspaper publishing and processing system, the color publishing and printing of newspapers has become a reality. Before 1993, there were almost no color newspapers, and some newspapers could only publish a color newspaper during major festivals or activities. Since 1994, some newspapers have published brilliant newspapers every day. In 1996, there were only about 50 kinds of color newspapers in the country. By the end of 1998, there were more than 400 kinds of color newspapers in the country. According to statistics, there were 742 newspaper printing plants in China in 2002, of which about 650 were printed by web glue printing wheel. As of the first half of 2002, there were 1255 imported offset rotary machines, 942 domestic offset rotary machines, and a total of 2200 offset rotary machines, which was three times that when the national newspaper industry completed the transformation from lead printing to offset printing in 1993. The total printing volume of newspapers also increased from 28.7 billion pairs in 1993 to 106.7 billion pairs in 2002, an increase of 3.7 times

due to the introduction of offset printing technology and equipment, China's newspaper industry has benefited greatly with the development of market economy. In a short period of more than 20 years, both social and economic benefits have been greatly harvested, and have made contributions to China's economic construction. At the same time, the newspaper industry has accelerated the pace of its own technological transformation and continuously invested the economic benefits obtained in the technological transformation. The front-end realizes the networking of acquisition and editing, and shortens the time of newspaper editing; The back-end printing equipment has also entered the introduction and expansion of the second offset rotary machine, which has laid a solid foundation for the publishing and printing of multi edition and color newspapers in order to adapt to the increasingly competitive newspaper market. Through the second transformation of the offset printing technology and equipment of the newspaper industry, not only the printing of newspapers in China has achieved multi edition colorization, but also the technology and equipment of the offset printing production line of the newspaper industry in China has reached the world-class advanced level

3. The application of offset printing technology and equipment has led to great changes in China's newspaper industry

the technological transformation of China's newspaper industry began with the realization of offset printing. After more than 20 years of application and development, the strength of China's newspaper industry has been continuously enhanced and expanded

the technological revolution of China's newspaper industry, which began with the introduction of offset printing technology and equipment, has made great strides in the application of new technologies and equipment. With the gradual completion of technological transformation, the publishing and printing capacity of the newspaper industry has been greatly improved. With the rapid development of market economy, the newspaper industry is also very profitable in advertising. In other words, the newspaper industry has received considerable returns from technological transformation, its economic strength has been greatly strengthened, its newspaper running strength has also been synchronously improved, and considerable capital accumulation has been completed. In order to get greater development, newspaper offices are no longer satisfied with the current situation of running 1-2 newspapers. Multi newspaper, multi publication and diversified operation have become the inevitable trend of newspaper industry development. At the same time, the way of collectivization is also in front of major newspapers. At present, most central, provincial and municipal newspaper offices have established newspaper groups (by 2003, there were 39 newspaper groups in China). The establishment of newspaper group paves the way for the newspaper industry to realize resource integration, intensive management, capital operation and so on. To establish a group, it is necessary to manage and operate in the way of the group. The original organization and management mode of the newspaper must be changed. Therefore, we can understand that the introduction of offset printing technology has fundamentally changed the production technology and management mode of the newspaper industry. With the comprehensive completion of the technological transformation of the newspaper industry, modern newspaper production has achieved computer compilation, networking operation, laser Phototypesetting, satellite transmission, multi edition color offset printing. The production capacity and economic strength of the newspaper industry have been improved by leaps and bounds, which further promotes the newspaper industry to take the road of collectivization development, and urges the newspaper industry to carry out changes in mechanism, system and other aspects, so as to achieve greater and faster development

4. Looking forward to offset printing technology and the future development of the newspaper industry

although China's newspaper printing has developed rapidly in the past 20 years and has formed a scale, from the perspective of the world, from the perspective of China's sustained economic growth and people's cultural needs, China's newspaper publishing still has a large development space, and the number of newspaper pages will increase due to the needs of readers and the market. Therefore, in the next few years, the growth rate of newspaper printing volume will remain at about 10% per year, and newspaper printing plants will still feel insufficient printing capacity; On the other hand, the competition in the newspaper market will be more intense

in addition to the strong technical strength and talent advantages of multi edition colorization of newspapers, the requirements for the timeliness and printing quality of newspapers will also be higher and higher. With the requirements of advertisers and the needs of publicity effect, the size of newspapers will show a variety of changes. The use of coated paper, offset paper and coated paper in newspaper printing has put forward a new topic for the development of newspaper printing. The combination of offset rotary press and semi commercial and commercial rotary press has become a reality, and also provides a broad space for the development of newspaper printing plants in the next few years

at present, all newspaper groups attach great importance to the newspaper printing department in formulating development plans. It not only accelerates the transformation and reform of the printing department system and mechanism, but also takes its operation as an important content to enhance the group's comprehensive strength and competitiveness. The future development of newspaper printing enterprises will be based on newspapers. On this basis, they will expand their business to the field of high-end business printing, expand market business and cultivate new profit growth points. Therefore, the business scope of newspaper printing plants will continue to expand, from a single newspaper production to a comprehensive printing plant that can print newspapers, as well as commercial prints, books and periodicals, packaging and decoration products, and gradually adopt a diversified and multi variety business strategy. At present, offset rotary machine is a more advanced generation, that is, shaftless transmission, color automatic tracking system, color multi edition and high-speed offset rotary production line. In addition, offset printing equipment for flat paper will also be introduced. Driven by the technological upgrading of offset printing technology and equipment, newspaper printing enterprises will gradually follow up in CTP plate making technology and equipment and become one of the key projects of technological transformation in the coming period of time. According to statistics, at the end of 2001, the national newspaper industry had 20 sets of CTP plate making equipment, and by the end of 2002, it had grown to 30 sets. At the end of May, 2004, it reached 56 sets. The post press processing system supporting the offset rotary machine will also become the key project of the transformation, that is, the development of intelligent automatic processing systems such as automatic transmission, counting, stacking and distribution

from the above statement, we can see that offset printing technology and equipment have indeed played a very important role in the development of China's newspaper industry. To sum up, the introduction of offset printing technology into the newspaper industry led to the first technological revolution in the newspaper industry, including from lead printing to bid farewell to lead and fire, and realized the new process of Laser Phototypesetting and offset printing. The completion of technological transformation has brought rich economic benefits to the newspaper industry, and then carried out the second technological revolution, realizing the networking of collection and editing and the colorization of multiple editions of newspapers, so that the newspaper industry can reform its system and mechanism and enhance its market competitiveness, so as to become stronger, bigger and achieve greater development. Therefore, we can draw the conclusion that offset printing technology has contributed to the development of our newspaper industry. In the future development path, although the emergence of new scientific and technological products such as electronic newspapers and electronic paper will add new space to the development of the newspaper industry, it is impossible to completely replace the increasingly perfect offset printing technology and paper-based newspaper products in the short term

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